Het voorspellen van contraproductief werkgedrag

Kan immoreel gedrag afgeleid worden van een aspect van een de persoonlijkheid van een werknemer?  Om enorme kosten te voorkomen is het van groot belang om het contraproductieve werkgedrag van uw werknemers te kunnen voorspellen. 

Uit onderzoek blijkt dat werkgevers graag testen of hun werknemers beschikken over ethisch gedrag. Hierbij meten zij persoonlijkheidskenmerken zoals: loyaliteit, eerlijkheid, integriteit en betrokkenheid.  

Fact sheet

The integrity test squares

squares - integriteitstest

cut-e Situational Behavior

Available on

What does this assessment measure ?

The likelihood of counterproductive behaviour in a work context.

What is the task?

The test taker is presented with statements on-screen and asked to rate their behaviour in comparison with others.

It is based on a model of counter-productive behaviour that takes into account the individual’s specific situation. Thus, it does not stigmatise the test taker’s results and offers the opportunity for change through training thereby enabling a greater acceptance of results by the individual.

Available on


Klanten die gebruik maken van squares

Waarvoor dient een integriteitstest?

Hier vindt u een paar voorbeelden van situaties waarin squares waardevol kan zijn:

  • Online screening: Het gebruik van squares  kan de kans op contraproductief werkgedrag bij gescreende personen aanzienlijk verminderen. De integriteitstest squares voegt bijzondere waarde toe aan taken in beveiligings- en beveiligingsbeheerfuncties (zoals beveiligingspersoneel, politie, of financiële professionals). 
  • On-the-job development: De productiviteit van personeel kan aanzienlijk worden verhoogd met gerichte trainingsmaatregelen gebaseerd op de resulaten van de squares. 
  • Strategieën voor bedrijfsburgerschap: squares kan worden gebruikt voor teams, afdelingen of hele bedrijven om kritieke aspecten te identificeren en om een ideaal startpunt voor bedrijfsontwikkelingsprocessen te bieden. 
  • Voorspellen van diensttijd:squares geeft een goed inzicht in het werving- en selectieproces. Het toont ook hoe groot de kans is dat werknemers in een organisatie blijven. Dit biedt werknemers vermindering van verloop en werving- en selectiekosten. 
  • Veiligheid: De veiligheidsrapport laat zien hoe nauwkeurig iemand te werk gaat. Deze bevindingen kunnen worden gebruikt in het selectieproces of regelmatig voor het begin van de dienst om de veiligheid van het personeel en eigendommen te waarborgen. 

Integrity assessment from Aon helps companies identify problem employees

Companies who select employees by assessing and looking for only the characteristics that indicate success are missing valuable and rich information.

Dr Achim Preuss, founder and MD of the Aon's Assessment Solutions, explains, “It makes sense to look for success indicators as these are the drivers of productivity and beneficial to the organisation – but it is only one side of the coin: it is just as important to look for those behaviours which may not be advantageous or constructive. We find that employers often ignore the flip side that is the darker aspect of those positive characteristics – and don’t look at the positive aspects of what are thought to be more negative qualities. It’s a common problem as it requires us to understand that our behaviour is not just based on us as a person, but is influenced by our situation.”

To help with this, Aon's Assessment Solutions has created a new assessment tool,squares, to measure exactly these hard-to-assess characteristics – in situations - and can be used alongside more traditional online assessments of ability and personality.

Corporate Scandals: How HR can help avoid them

In this article, Dr Achim Preuss looks at the role that HR can take as ethical custodians to help prevent corporate scandals caused by undesirable behaviour. What this means and how it can work is presented as well as some concrete tips for HR to apply. 

Dr Achim Preuss on squares and integrity

We interviewed the Aon's Assessment Solutions founder, Dr Achim Preuss, about squares - the integrity test by Aon. Find answers here about the concept of integrity, how it can be measured, in what kind of situations this makes sense and why and how squares works so well.

What value can integrity testing bring to recruitment?

Integrity testing can be used at the recruitment stage - alongside more traditional online assessments of ability and personality - to identify and understand whether your candidates have strong moral principles; whether they’ll uphold ethical standards and the degree to which they’re vulnerable to counterproductive behaviour.

Aon's squares test is an online situational behaviour questionnaire that reveals a candidate’s ethical awareness and their impulse control by measuring six ‘scales’. Valid for all job positions, it scores candidates on how empathetic, honest, reflective, disciplined, conscientious and cautious they are.

Criterium: Hoe de Norwegian Police Academy gebruikgemaakt heeft van integriteitstests.

Espen Skorstad, MD van Aon's Assessment Solutions Norway, legt uit:  “De Norwegian Police Academy heeft van oudser gebruikgemaakt van Aon’s vaardighedentest en persoonlijkheidsvragenlijst om nieuwe politieagenten te identificeren, beoordelen en te werven. Ongeveer 1600 aanvragers nemen deze test ieder jaar af. Sinds 2014 gebruikt de Police Academy ook squares tom de betrouwbaarheid van aanvragers te beoordelen. De resultaten worden door de recruiters van de Police Academy gebruikt tijdens het selectieproces. Momenteel zijn we bezig met het correleren en evalueren van de data zodat we een "cut-off betrouwbaarheidsscore" kunnen ontwikkelen.  Dit voegt een ander meetaspect toe aan een beoordelingsproces dat al zeer robuust is."

Webinar 'Hip to be square'

Introductie van squares, de Aon integriteitstest. In dit webinar behandelen we het onderzoek dat de ontwikkeling van squares ondersteunt en laten we zien hoe de situatie ertoe doet en wat er wordt gebruikt voor een integriteitstest.

Benchmark: How integrity testing is used by Coop Norge

Espen Skorstad, MD of Aon's Assessment Solutions Norway: “We’re also working with the Norwegian cooperative grocery chain Coop Norge. They use our ability tests and personality questionnaire when recruiting. We’re now introducing squares as part of the recruitment process for warehouse workers. Heavy and light machinery is used in the Coop warehouses to meet the logistical challenges of the fast moving and perishable grocery business. We generate a ‘safety report’ from squares, which shows how safe, compliant and cautious a candidate is. Their safety score is a useful indicator which helps Coop Norge to make good selection decisions.”

Ask the expert question: Is integrity testing suitable for all roles?

Over the years, assessment providers have tried to create psychometric tests that will help to identify trustworthiness. Some of these tests are not only ethically dubious, they ignore two important facts: behaviour is dependent on circumstances and people can change their ability to resist temptation.
Our squares test is an online situational behaviour questionnaire that accurately assesses a candidate’s integrity, reliability, credibility and the degree to which they’re vulnerable to counterproductive behaviour. squares reveals a candidate’s ethical awareness and his or her impulse control by measuring six ‘scales’. It scores candidates on how empathetic, honest, reflective, disciplined, conscientious and cautious they are. This test is valid for all job positions but these six scales may need to be weighted differently for different types of role. For example, for a creative role, you may want someone who is prepared to innovate and challenge the conventional way of thinking. This person would not score highly on the ‘cautious’ scale.
squares is typically used at the recruitment stage - alongside more traditional online assessments of ability and personality - to identify and understand whether candidates have integrity and strong moral principles; whether they’ll uphold ethical standards and the degree to which they’re vulnerable to counterproductive behaviour.
Research shows that we’re all susceptible to counterproductive behaviour if we’re placed in pressurised or ambiguous situations. However, each of us reacts differently to the triggers we face. A person’s ability to resist the temptation to behave improperly can improve if they know their own ‘critical situations’ or the circumstances when they’re most vulnerable. Raising awareness of these situations can help people to reflect on their behaviour and control their impulses.
So how effective is squares? Studies show it has the same success rate at predicting whether someone is prone to counterproductive behaviour as expert interviewers could achieve in a 60-minute, structured ‘trustworthiness’ interview. In other words, squares can simulate the rigour of an in-depth structured interview by trained professionals, giving the same results but in a much quicker, more efficient and more cost effective way.
Used correctly, this test can increase the likelihood that you’ll recruit individuals who will act in the best interests of your organisation.

What makes the integrity test squares special?

Predicting counterproductive work behaviour is a new way to add additional value to assessments. Absence from work, fraud, or dangerous conduct causes a lot of damage. squares is a new online integrity test which not only considers the person but also their situation. The items describe behaviour rather than traits, which allows the prediction of counterproductive behaviour without stigmatizing those scoring low on the questionnaire.

squares characteristics

The integrity test squares has already been exposed to comprehensive validation studies, including a large-scale online study with 335 participants, and the results of the online instrument were compared with qualitative interviews. Both confirmed good psychometric properties of the questionnaire - in fact so good that we have recently submitted an article on the subject to the Conference of the Economic Psychology Section of the American Psychological Society for next year.

For those who want to know the really technical psychometrics of the research which underpins squares...

Reference reading

Berry, C. M., Sackett, R. R. & Wiemann, S. (2007). A Review of Recent Developments in Integrity Test Research. Personnel Psychology, 60, 271–301.

Friedrich, C. (2003). Vertrauen als Unternehmensressource. In A. Martin (Hrsg.), Personal als Ressource (S. 119–139). München/Mering: Rainer Hampp Verlag.

Furnham, A., Hyde, G. & Trickey, G. (2013). Do your Dark Side Traits Fit? Dysfunctional Personalities in Different Work Sectors. Applied Psychology.Advance online publication. doi: 10.1111/apps.12002.

Gottfredson, M. R. & Hirschi, T. (1990). A General Theory of Crime. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Hankes, J. (2011). Die inkrementelle Validität eines Integrity-Tests in Bezug auf Ausbildungserfolg – Kann ein Integrity-Test ein Interview ersetzen? [online].

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Marcus, B., Funke, U., & Schuler, H. (1997). Integrity Tests als spezielle Gruppe eignungsdiagnostischer Verfahren: Literaturüberblick und metaanalytische Befunde zur Konstruktvalidität. Zeitschrift für Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie, 41, 2–11.

Marcus, B. (2000). Kontraproduktives Verhalten im Betrieb. Eine individuumsbezogene Perspektive. Göttingen: Verlag für Angewandte Psychologie.

Marcus, B. & Schuler, H. (2004). Antecedents of counterproductive behavior at work: A general perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 647-660.

Marcus, B., Höft, S., & Riediger, M. (2006). Integrity Tests and the Five-Factor Model of Personality: A Review and Empirical Test of two Alternative Positions. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 14 (2), 113–128.

Milgram, S. (1963). Behavioral Study of Obedience. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67 (4), 371–378.

Mischel, W., Ebbesen, E. B., & Zeiss, A. R. (1972). Cognitive and attentional mechanisms in delay of gratification. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 21 (2), 204–218. 

Ones, D., Viswesvaran, C. & Schmidt, F. L. (1993). Meta-analysis of Integrity Tests Validities. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 679–693.

Ones, D. & Viswesvaran, C. (2001). Integrity Tests and Other Criterion-Focused Occupational Personality Scales (COPS) Used in Personnel Selection. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 9 (1/2), 31–39.

Ones, D., Viswesvaran, C. & Schmidt, F. L. (2003). Personality and Absenteeism: a Meta-Analysis of Integrity Tests. European Journal of Personality, 17, 19–38.

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Rezlescu, C., Duchaine, B., Olivola, C.Y. & Chater, N. (2012). Unfakeable Facial Configurations Affect Strategic Choices in Trust Games with or without Information about Past Behavior. PLoS ONE, 7 (3), e34293.

Schmidt, A. (2003). Sensation Seeking und delinquentes Verhalten. In M. Roth & P. Hammelstein (Hrsg.), Sensation Seeking – Konzeption Diagnostik und Anwendung (S.214-234). Göttingen: Hogrefe.

Todorov, A., Said, C.P., Engell, A.D. & Oosterhof, N.N. (2008). Understanding evaluation of faces on social dimensions. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12, 455–60.

U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment (1990). The Use of Integrity Tests for Pre-Employment Screening. Washington, DC. pp. 1–78.

Wanek, J., Sackett, P. & Ones, D. (2003). Towards an Understanding of Integrity Test Similarities and Differences. Personnel Psychology, 56, 873–894.

Zimbardo, P (2007). The Lucifer Effect. New York: The Random House. 






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